Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Benzyl chloride is a clear, colorless liquid that is used primarily as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, plasticizers, lubricants, gasoline additives, pharmaceuticals, tanning agents, and quaternary ammonium compounds. Also used as an irritant gas in chemical warfare (HSDB 2005) and in the manufacture of photographic developer (HSDB 2005)
Methenamine is a chemical that is used in production of rubber and resins, as fuel in camping stoves, preservative in cosmetics and food, corrosion inhibitor in the steel industry, stabilizer and developer in the photo industry, fungicide for citrus trees, and antiseptic.
2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is an alcohol that is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slighty floral odor. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is used as a solvent for dyes, oils and resins as well as a plasticizer for PVC resins and a wetting agent. It can be manufactured by the hydrogenation of 2-ethyl-1-hexenal (HSDB 2003).
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive;
1. Propargyl alcohol is used as a reactant/chemical intermediate for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals, soil fumigant, corrosion inhibitor, solvent stabilizer, and polymer modifier. It has also been used to prevent the hydrogen embrittlement of steel (NTP, 2008).
2. Fracking fluids
Ethylene glycol is a chemical that functions as a monomer in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic, is used as an antifreeze and deicing/anti-icing solution, is used as an ingredient in resins, inks, paints, waxes, heat transfer fluids, hydraulic fluids, and surfactants, and is a component of electrical boards and electrical condensers.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Diethanolamine is a chemical that functions as a component in the production of lubricants for the textile industry, as a rubber chemicals intermediate, as a humectant and softening agent, as an emulsifier and dispersing agent in agricultural chemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as an ingredient in cutting oils, cleaners, polishers, and shampoos, as a gas conditioning agent, and as a chemical intermediate for morpholine, fatty acid salt emulsifiers, and alkyl sulfate salt emulsifiers.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Solvent in various applications, such as in surface coatings, lacquers, enamels, varnishes, varnish removers, latex paint, metal cleaners, and other commercially available cleaning products (EPA, 2010).
INORGANIC 1. Diiron trixode is as a colorant/ pigment in the following applications: Adhesives and sealants, coatings and paint, inks and toners, leather tanning, dyeing, lubricants, greases, paper and board dyeing, plastics, textile dyes; Feedstock for the production of steel, iron and other alloys
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
Formaldehyde is a chemical that functions as a fixative of biological specimens and as an embalming fluid; as a germicide and chemical intermediate; in the production of amino, polyacetal, urea-formaldehyde resins, and phenolic resins, plastics, wood products, fertilizers, and foam insulation; as a textile finish, stabilizer, preservative, disinfectant, and antibacterial food additive; as a reducing agent for the recovery of gold and silver, corrosion inhibitor in oil wells, durable-press treatment of textile fabrics, industrial sterilant, and treatment of grain smut; as a cross-linking agent for paper waterproofing, nickel-plating brightening agent, latex coagulant, crease-proof textile finishing agent, and photographic gelatin hardening agent; and in the manufacturing of particle board, plywood, and medium-density fiber board.
Glycine, N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-, trisodium salt (CAS #5064-31-3) is a chemical that functions as a chelating agent in bleaching, synthetic rubber, tanning, textiles, and pharmaceuticals, as a sequestrant, and as a builder in low phosphate detergents. It has also been reported as an impurity in hydraulic fracturing fluid products.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Wood preservative; Dazomet functions as an algaecide, bacteriostat, fungicide, microbiocide, and mildewcide. Specific applications include “1) treatment during the production of pulp and paper; 2) as a material preservative treatment for coatings, adhesives, epoxy flooring compounds, slurries, and high viscous suspensions; 3) as a biocide treatment used during petroleum operations; 4) as a biocide treatment to recirculating cooling water systems; and 5) as a remedial wood treatment to utility poles (EPA, 2008).”
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS) is a crystalline solid that is available commercially as a 75% concentrated aqueous solution. It is mainly used as biocide, in water treatment systems, oil field operations, and paper-making industry. In hydraulic fracturing fluids, it functions as a biocide that eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-products.
Formic acid is a chemical that is used in textile dyeing and finishing, rubber manufacture, and as a chemical intermediate, catalyst in resins, plasticizer in resins, antiseptic and preservative, component of cleaning solutions, and oil well acidifying agent. It is also used as a direct food additive and in food packaging. In hydraulic fracturing, it is used as a corrosion inhibitor to protect pipes and related fracking components.
Naphtha, petroleum, hydrotreated heavy is a chemical that is primarily used as a solvent in a variety of applications including: extraction, cleaning, degreasing, aerosols, paints, wood preservatives, asphalt products, lacquers, and varnishes.
1. Routinely used in hydraulic fracturing as a stabilizer and/or winterizing agent in corrosion
inhibitors, non-emulsifiers and surfactants. A typical water-based hydraulic fracturing fluid contains
isopropanol at 0.085%.
2. Solvent in food, pharmaceuticals and personal care products
3. Denaturing agent in specimen preparation
4. Chemical intermediate for organic synthesis
5. Disinfectant for home, hospital and industry (HSDB 2012)
Thioglycolic acid is a chemical that functions as a chemical intermediate for thioglycolates; ingredient in depilatories, biological media for microorganism growth, and permanent hair wave solutions; chelating agent; reagent for detection of iron and other metal ions; used in the production of permanent creases in textiles; as a raw material for manufacture of fine and specialty chemicals in the pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors; and used as an electroplating and plasticizing material and catalyst for carbonyl condensation.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; ADBAC a registered pesticide with the U.S. EPA. Uses include algaecide, bactericide, bacteriostat, wood preservative, fungicide, fungistat, virucide, tuberculoside, insecticide, microbiocide, microbiostat, molluscicide, deodorant, disinfectant, and sanitizer in agricultural, food handling, commercial / institutional / industrial, residential and public access, and medical settings (EPA, 2006a).
Coconut oil acid/diethanolamine condensate (2:1) is a chemical that functions as a corrosion inhibitor, surfactant foam booster and viscosity increasing agent, antimigration agent, antistatic agent, and foam stabilizer.
Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)dimethyl, salts with bentonite is a chemical that is used in coatings and paints, drilling muds, printing inks, cosmetics, and nanocomposites. It is also used in surfactants in hydraulic fracturing fluids.
n-Butanol is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable. It is classified as a primary alcohol and is used primarily as a chemical intermediate, as an ingredient in formulated products such as cosmetics, and as a solvent.
1. Solvent for paints, lacquers, varnishes, resins, gums, vegetable oils, dyes and alkaloids (HSDB 2010).
2. An intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and chemicals (HSDB 2010).
3. Employed in industries producing artificial leather, textiles, safety glass, rubber cement, shellac, raincoats, photographic films and perfumes (HSDB 2010).
4. Additives in beverages and foods (HSDB 2010).
Benzene is a chemical that functions as a raw material and intermediate for chemical synthesis, a solvent, a gasoline additive, and a natural component of diesel fuel that is used as a solvent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Tar bases, quinoline derivatives, benzyl chloride-quaternized is a chemical with no functional uses identified. No data were identified for tar bases, quinoline derivatives, benzyl chloride-quaternized.
Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction; Acetaldehyde is a chemical that functions mainly as a chemical intermediate:
1. Intermediate in the synthesis of pentaerythritol (25% in the U.S.)
2. Intermediate in the synthesis of pyridine and substituted pyridines (25% in the US)
3. Intermediate in the production of perfumes, polyester resins, basic dyes and metaldehyde
4. Fruit and fish preservative
5. Denaturant in alcohol
6. In fuel compositions
7. Solvent in rubber, tanning and paper industries
Tetramethylammonium chloride is a chemical that functions as a clay stabilizer (prevents swelling or shifting) in hydraulic fracturing fluids, a chemical intermediate, a catalyst, and an inhibitor (unspecified).
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Numerous uses cited by ECB (2003) include chemical intermediate or reagent in the manufacturing of phthalic anhydride, azo dyes, naphthalene sulfonic acids (for the manufacture of plasticizers for concrete, ingredient in plasterboard, dispersants in synthetic and natural rubbers, and in tanning agents for leather industries), alkylated naphthalene solvents, and feed stock in numerous miscellaneous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Also used in mothballs (as a moth repellant and insecticide), for pyrotechnics in the film industry (to make ignitable pellets for the generation of black smoke, or in a container with a charge to simulate an explosion), and in the manufacture of grinding wheels.