Adhesives and sealant chemicals, Fuels and fuel additives, Intermediates, Laboratory
chemicals, Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories, Processing
aids not otherwise listed, Solvents (for cleaning or degreasing), Solvents (which become part
of product formulation or mixture), Arts, Crafts, and Hobby Materials, Building/Construction
Materials not covered elsewhere, Electrical and Electronic Products, Food Packaging, Fuels
and Related Products, Furniture and Furnishings not covered elsewhere, Lawn and Garden
Care Products, Paints and Coatings, Plastic and Rubber Products not covered elsewhere,
Toys, Playground, and Sporting Equipment.
Acrylonitrile is used principally as a monomer to prepare polyacrylonitrile, a homopolymer, or several important copolymers, such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), and other synthetic rubbers such as acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR). Dimerization of acrylonitrile affords adiponitrile, used in the synthesis of certain polyamides. Small amounts are also used as a fumigant. Acrylonitrile and derivatives, such as 2-chloro-acrylonitrile, are dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions. Acrylonitrile is also a precursor in the industrial manufacture of acrylamide and acrylic acid. (EU RAR 2004)
1. Used commercially in the production of benzene and many other chemicals, e.g. benzoic acid, nitrotoluenes, dyes, pharmaceuticals, food additives, plastics, etc.
2. Widely used as a solvent in coatings, adhesives, inks, pharmaceuticals and chemical processing.
1. Ink, Toner, and Colorant Products
2. Paints and Coatings
3. Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories
4. Processing aids, not otherwise listed
5. Solvents (which become part of product formulation or mixture)
1. d-Limonene is FDA approved as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) when used as a synthetic flavoring substance and/or adjuvant in food. It is also commonly used as a fragrance in personal care products. In pesticide formulations, it is considered an inert ingredient when used as a solvent or fragrance.
2. d-Limonene has solvent properties and is common in numerous consumer and industrial cleaning products.
3. Experimental uses of d-limonene have been reported for dissolving gallstones.
1. Fracturing fluids
2. Industrial solvent
3. Dehydrating pipelines, as a de-icing agent
4. Duplicating fluid
5. Fuel additive, and in the production of formaldehyde, acetic acid, and methyl tertiary butyl ether
Benzene is a chemical that functions as a raw material and intermediate for chemical synthesis, a solvent, a gasoline additive, and a natural component of diesel fuel that is used as a solvent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction
1. Hydrogen chloride is a High Production Volume (HPV) industrial chemical. It can be synthesized by direct reaction of hydrogen and chlorine, by reaction of metal chlorides and acids, and as a by-product from many chemical manufacturing processes such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. It is sold commercially in gaseous or liquid forms at various concentrations. Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is mainly used to produce chlorinated compounds such as ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, etc. Aqueous forms are commonly used for oil well acidification and steel pickling
2. Hydrogen chloride is also naturally occurring in the environment by reaction of sea salt and acidic sulphate in the ocean, through atmospheric or aquatic degradation of organo-halongens, etc.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Numerous uses cited by ECB (2003) include chemical intermediate or reagent in the manufacturing of phthalic anhydride, azo dyes, naphthalene sulfonic acids (for the manufacture of plasticizers for concrete, ingredient in plasterboard, dispersants in synthetic and natural rubbers, and in tanning agents for leather industries), alkylated naphthalene solvents, and feed stock in numerous miscellaneous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Also used in mothballs (as a moth repellant and insecticide), for pyrotechnics in the film industry (to make ignitable pellets for the generation of black smoke, or in a container with a charge to simulate an explosion), and in the manufacture of grinding wheels.