Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Benzyl chloride is a clear, colorless liquid that is used primarily as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, plasticizers, lubricants, gasoline additives, pharmaceuticals, tanning agents, and quaternary ammonium compounds. Also used as an irritant gas in chemical warfare (HSDB 2005) and in the manufacture of photographic developer (HSDB 2005)
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive;
1. Propargyl alcohol is used as a reactant/chemical intermediate for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals, soil fumigant, corrosion inhibitor, solvent stabilizer, and polymer modifier. It has also been used to prevent the hydrogen embrittlement of steel (NTP, 2008).
2. Fracking fluids
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Diethanolamine is a chemical that functions as a component in the production of lubricants for the textile industry, as a rubber chemicals intermediate, as a humectant and softening agent, as an emulsifier and dispersing agent in agricultural chemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as an ingredient in cutting oils, cleaners, polishers, and shampoos, as a gas conditioning agent, and as a chemical intermediate for morpholine, fatty acid salt emulsifiers, and alkyl sulfate salt emulsifiers.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Solvent in various applications, such as in surface coatings, lacquers, enamels, varnishes, varnish removers, latex paint, metal cleaners, and other commercially available cleaning products (EPA, 2010).
Silsesquioxane compounds have been used in transition metal catalyst systems. Limited information is available for silsesquioxanes, 3-amino Me, ethoxy-terminated. However, it is a component of numerous silicone sealants.
Lactide is a chemical that functions as a pH regulator in food, a swelling agent in bakery products, a bacteriostat in meat emulsions, a reagent for chemical reactions that do not produce water molecules, a destabilizer for production of porous ceramics, and an electrolyte in lithium batteries.
Formaldehyde is a chemical that functions as a fixative of biological specimens and as an embalming fluid; as a germicide and chemical intermediate; in the production of amino, polyacetal, urea-formaldehyde resins, and phenolic resins, plastics, wood products, fertilizers, and foam insulation; as a textile finish, stabilizer, preservative, disinfectant, and antibacterial food additive; as a reducing agent for the recovery of gold and silver, corrosion inhibitor in oil wells, durable-press treatment of textile fabrics, industrial sterilant, and treatment of grain smut; as a cross-linking agent for paper waterproofing, nickel-plating brightening agent, latex coagulant, crease-proof textile finishing agent, and photographic gelatin hardening agent; and in the manufacturing of particle board, plywood, and medium-density fiber board.
Lactic acid is a chemical that functions as an acidulant in food, beverage and bakery products; it is used in the textile and leather industries as a mordant in printing woolen goods, a solvent for waterinsoluble dyes, and to reduce chromates in mordanting wool, and dehairing, plumping, and
decalcifying hides, and in the chemical industry for various purposes.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Wood preservative; Dazomet functions as an algaecide, bacteriostat, fungicide, microbiocide, and mildewcide. Specific applications include “1) treatment during the production of pulp and paper; 2) as a material preservative treatment for coatings, adhesives, epoxy flooring compounds, slurries, and high viscous suspensions; 3) as a biocide treatment used during petroleum operations; 4) as a biocide treatment to recirculating cooling water systems; and 5) as a remedial wood treatment to utility poles (EPA, 2008).”
Acetic acid is a chemical that functions as an acidifier in food and pharmaceutical industries, and has been used in commercial organic synthesis, pesticides, as well as in a variety of other applications.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; ADBAC a registered pesticide with the U.S. EPA. Uses include algaecide, bactericide, bacteriostat, wood preservative, fungicide, fungistat, virucide, tuberculoside, insecticide, microbiocide, microbiostat, molluscicide, deodorant, disinfectant, and sanitizer in agricultural, food handling, commercial / institutional / industrial, residential and public access, and medical settings (EPA, 2006a).
Coconut oil acid/diethanolamine condensate (2:1) is a chemical that functions as a corrosion inhibitor, surfactant foam booster and viscosity increasing agent, antimigration agent, antistatic agent, and foam stabilizer.
Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)dimethyl, salts with bentonite is a chemical that is used in coatings and paints, drilling muds, printing inks, cosmetics, and nanocomposites. It is also used in surfactants in hydraulic fracturing fluids.
n-Butanol is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable. It is classified as a primary alcohol and is used primarily as a chemical intermediate, as an ingredient in formulated products such as cosmetics, and as a solvent.
1. Solvent for paints, lacquers, varnishes, resins, gums, vegetable oils, dyes and alkaloids (HSDB 2010).
2. An intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and chemicals (HSDB 2010).
3. Employed in industries producing artificial leather, textiles, safety glass, rubber cement, shellac, raincoats, photographic films and perfumes (HSDB 2010).
4. Additives in beverages and foods (HSDB 2010).
Benzene is a chemical that functions as a raw material and intermediate for chemical synthesis, a solvent, a gasoline additive, and a natural component of diesel fuel that is used as a solvent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction
Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)dimethyl, salts with bentonite is a chemical that is used in coatings and paints, drilling muds, printing inks, cosmetics, and nanocomposites.
Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction; Acetaldehyde is a chemical that functions mainly as a chemical intermediate:
1. Intermediate in the synthesis of pentaerythritol (25% in the U.S.)
2. Intermediate in the synthesis of pyridine and substituted pyridines (25% in the US)
3. Intermediate in the production of perfumes, polyester resins, basic dyes and metaldehyde
4. Fruit and fish preservative
5. Denaturant in alcohol
6. In fuel compositions
7. Solvent in rubber, tanning and paper industries
Barium sulfate is a chemical that is used to make drilling muds in the oil and gas industry, to make paints, bricks, tiles, glass, and rubber, as a chemical intermediate to prepare other barium compounds, to perform medical tests and x-rays, and as a color pigment.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Numerous uses cited by ECB (2003) include chemical intermediate or reagent in the manufacturing of phthalic anhydride, azo dyes, naphthalene sulfonic acids (for the manufacture of plasticizers for concrete, ingredient in plasterboard, dispersants in synthetic and natural rubbers, and in tanning agents for leather industries), alkylated naphthalene solvents, and feed stock in numerous miscellaneous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Also used in mothballs (as a moth repellant and insecticide), for pyrotechnics in the film industry (to make ignitable pellets for the generation of black smoke, or in a container with a charge to simulate an explosion), and in the manufacture of grinding wheels.