2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is an alcohol that is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slighty floral odor. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is used as a solvent for dyes, oils and resins as well as a plasticizer for PVC resins and a wetting agent. It can be manufactured by the hydrogenation of 2-ethyl-1-hexenal (HSDB 2003).
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive;
1. Propargyl alcohol is used as a reactant/chemical intermediate for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals, soil fumigant, corrosion inhibitor, solvent stabilizer, and polymer modifier. It has also been used to prevent the hydrogen embrittlement of steel (NTP, 2008).
2. Fracking fluids
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Solvent in various applications, such as in surface coatings, lacquers, enamels, varnishes, varnish removers, latex paint, metal cleaners, and other commercially available cleaning products (EPA, 2010).
Mixture of isomers: 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (CASRN 95-63-6); 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (CASRN 108-67-8); and 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene (CASRN 526-73-8). Trimethylbenzenes are chemicals that function as solvents and intermediates in the production of dyes, perfumes, and resins, as paint thinners, as motor fuel components, and as a co-monomer in the production of pseudocumene-formaldehyde resins (1,2,4-trimethylbenzene only).
Lactic acid is a chemical that functions as an acidulant in food, beverage and bakery products; it is used in the textile and leather industries as a mordant in printing woolen goods, a solvent for waterinsoluble dyes, and to reduce chromates in mordanting wool, and dehairing, plumping, and
decalcifying hides, and in the chemical industry for various purposes.
Naphtha, petroleum, hydrotreated heavy is a chemical that is primarily used as a solvent in a variety of applications including: extraction, cleaning, degreasing, aerosols, paints, wood preservatives, asphalt products, lacquers, and varnishes.
1. Routinely used in hydraulic fracturing as a stabilizer and/or winterizing agent in corrosion
inhibitors, non-emulsifiers and surfactants. A typical water-based hydraulic fracturing fluid contains
isopropanol at 0.085%.
2. Solvent in food, pharmaceuticals and personal care products
3. Denaturing agent in specimen preparation
4. Chemical intermediate for organic synthesis
5. Disinfectant for home, hospital and industry (HSDB 2012)
Propanol is a chemical that functions as a flavoring substance in foods, as a solvent in inks, paint, cosmetics, and pesticides, as a chemical intermediate for the production of esters, amines, and other organic derivatives.
n-Butanol is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable. It is classified as a primary alcohol and is used primarily as a chemical intermediate, as an ingredient in formulated products such as cosmetics, and as a solvent.
1. Solvent for paints, lacquers, varnishes, resins, gums, vegetable oils, dyes and alkaloids (HSDB 2010).
2. An intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and chemicals (HSDB 2010).
3. Employed in industries producing artificial leather, textiles, safety glass, rubber cement, shellac, raincoats, photographic films and perfumes (HSDB 2010).
4. Additives in beverages and foods (HSDB 2010).
Benzene is a chemical that functions as a raw material and intermediate for chemical synthesis, a solvent, a gasoline additive, and a natural component of diesel fuel that is used as a solvent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction
Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction; Acetaldehyde is a chemical that functions mainly as a chemical intermediate:
1. Intermediate in the synthesis of pentaerythritol (25% in the U.S.)
2. Intermediate in the synthesis of pyridine and substituted pyridines (25% in the US)
3. Intermediate in the production of perfumes, polyester resins, basic dyes and metaldehyde
4. Fruit and fish preservative
5. Denaturant in alcohol
6. In fuel compositions
7. Solvent in rubber, tanning and paper industries
Isobutanol is a chemical that functions as a solvent in surface coatings, adhesives, paint strippers, lacquers, perfumes, cleaners, and hydraulic fluid, and is used in the production of isobutyl esters and flavoring agents.
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Numerous uses cited by ECB (2003) include chemical intermediate or reagent in the manufacturing of phthalic anhydride, azo dyes, naphthalene sulfonic acids (for the manufacture of plasticizers for concrete, ingredient in plasterboard, dispersants in synthetic and natural rubbers, and in tanning agents for leather industries), alkylated naphthalene solvents, and feed stock in numerous miscellaneous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Also used in mothballs (as a moth repellant and insecticide), for pyrotechnics in the film industry (to make ignitable pellets for the generation of black smoke, or in a container with a charge to simulate an explosion), and in the manufacture of grinding wheels.